IT & Telecommunications glossary

  • 2G
    Second-Generation mobile telephony. 2G networks were commercially launched on GSM standard in the early 1990s.
    3G
    Third-Generation mobile telephony. Main commercially deployed 3G networks include UMTS as well as CDMA standard. Even though GSM EDGE (2.9G) and Mobile WiMAX also fulfil the 3G requirements and are approved as 3G standards by ITU, these are typically not branded 3G.
    3GPP
    Third-Generation Partnership Project. Collaboration of groups of telecommunications associations. The primary goal of the organization was to develop and standardize 3G mobile services. It is currently developing the new LTE-A standard.
    4G
    Fourth-Generation mobile telephony. Mobile WiMAX and LTE standard have been labelled as 4G commercial networks.
  • ABSL
    Association of Business Service Leaders in Poland. An organization that represents business services providers.
    ADSL
    Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. Technology that enables fast internet access over telephone lines. Bandwidth is higher towards end customer (downstream) than in the opposite direction (upstream), hence the term “asymmetric”. ADSL services are offered mainly by former fixed-line incumbent operators and alternative carriers on a wholesale basis (bitstream access).
    Agency for Regulations in Telecommunications (Tajikistan)
    Tajikistan telecommunications market regulator.
    ANCOM
    The National Authority for Management and Regulation in Communications (Autoritatea Naţională pentru Administrare şi Reglementare în Comunicaţii). The Romanian telecommunications market regulator.
    ANIS
    Employers Association of the Software and Services Industry (Asociaţia Patronală a Industriei de Software şi Servicii). The non-profit NGO representing mainly software producers and related service providers in Romania. Established in 1998.
    Antimonopoly Committee of Ukraine
    State authority with special status, aimed at providing the state protection to competition in the field of entrepreneurial activity.
    APDETIC
    Association of Producers and Distributors of ICT equipment in Romania (Asociatiei producatorilor si distribuitorilor de echipamente de tehnologia informatiei si comunicatiilor).
    APPM
    Average price per minute for selected telecommunications services.
    ARIES
    Romanian IT and Software Association (Asociatia Romana pentru Industria Electronica si Software). Non-governmental organization that represents and promotes the ICT industry.
    ARPL
    Average Revenues Per Line. Operator revenues from average line in one-month period.
    ARPU
    Average Revenue Per User. The indicator is presented as revenues of the operator from the average client in one-month period. The higher the operator’s ARPU, the higher the operator’s revenues.
    AUPU
    Average Usage Per User, defined as total usage (including outgoing traffic, incoming traffic and roaming) of an average customer in one-month period. AUPU is quoted in minutes. Also known as MoU (Minutes of Use of telecommunications services).
  • B2B
    Business-to-Business. Services being provided by one business party to another.
    B2C
    Business-to-Customer. Services being provided by business to the end user.
    BaaS
    Backup as a Service. Remote utility consisting of backup, storage, and recovery services. Backup services are considered a form of cloud computing in IaaS model.
    BI
    Business Intelligence. Type of business software with primary function to collect and analyse data in and outside of the company in order to support decision making processes. Sold as independent software as well as a module of ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) systems.
    BPO
    Business Process Outsourcing. Form of outsourcing that involves contracting the operations and responsibilities of a specific business process to a third-party service provider. Besides outsourcing IT processes, other popular processes include outsourcing of HR or financial activities.
    Broadband
    High-speed data transmission provided in various technologies. The minimum required speed for broadband connection varies with time and country. According to Polish state regulations, the minimum required downstream and upstream for broadband connection is 256 Kbit/s. Main technologies for provision of broadband internet are cable, xDSL, FiOS, Wi-Fi, WiMAX, 3G, 4G, and satellite.
    BSA
    Bitstream Access. Wholesale of data transmission from local loop to the end customer. In other words, internet access services are bought from incumbent operator (even on the last mile) at a wholesale price and then resold to end clients. Service offered by alternative operators.
    BSA
    Business Software Alliance. Global non-profit organisation representing software and hardware producers. The organisation was established in order to fight piracy.
    BTS
    Base Transceiver Station. Device wirelessly connecting mobile points of the network (mobile telephones) with the core of the telecommunications network. The operating network can function in different standards (for instance GSM, CDMA, WLL, or WiMAX).
  • CaTV
    Cable Television. A system of distributing a TV signal through a fixed connection with coaxial cable or fibre optics. In addition to TV signals, other services may also be broadcast with this technology: internet access, VoIP telephony and FM radio.
    CDMA
    Code Division Multiple Access, a service technology in competition with GSM. CDMA uses a “spread-spectrum” technique whereby electromagnetic energy is spread to allow for a signal with a wider bandwidth. This standard became attractive for 3G high-speed mobile internet use.
    CEEOA
    Central and Eastern European Outsourcing Association. Aimed at increasing regional and international competitiveness through improving viability of businesses and capability to deliver services in CEE.
    Churn
    Percentage of subscribers that resign from the services of an operator in a selected period.
    Cloud computing
    Model of provision of ICT solutions. As defined by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States): models providing access to shared computing resources, used over a relatively fast period of time with a minimum effort or interaction from the provider. The model comprises five characteristics, three service models and four implementation models of service provision. Basic service models of cloud computing provision are Infrastructure as a service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Software as a Service (SaaS). The key characteristics of cloud computing are:
    • self-service in using on-demand services, users can independently install and configure software;
    • ubiquity of the service through standard network hardware;
    • resource pooling regardless of the location;
    • flexibility: users can increase or decrease the parameters at will;
    • measured service: fees are charged according to the actual usage of resources, broadband width and storage space.
    CMS
    Content Management System. Type of software allowing publishing, maintenance, editing and modifying content. These type of software is usually used to run websites with significant amount of content such as blogs, news, and e-commerce sites.
    Colocation
    Service of renting space for servers and other computing hardware in the external facility, usually specially deployed for commercial provision of such services data centre. The data centre provides cooling, power, bandwidth and physical security while the customer provides compatible servers, storage and networking equipment.
    Communications Regulation Commission
    Telecommunications market regulator in Bulgaria (Комисията за регулиране на съобщенията).
    Computer market
    Revenues from the sale of computer hardware. It is a product of average price (calculated by PMR in each product category) and volume of sale of the producers (in each product category). Product categories taken into account are desktops, portable computers (notebooks, netbooks, tablets excluding smartphones), servers (x86), printing devices, monitors and projectors and all other IT hardware and components sold separately (for instance keyboards, pointing devices, processors, motherboards, and hard disks). The value of a market excludes revenues from the sale of network equipment and devices: routers, switches, etc.
    Core network
    Telecommunications network intended for the transfer of traffic between main nodes of the network.
    CPP
    Calling Party Pays. Billing method in which a subscriber pays only for the calls made and nothing for the calls received.
    CRM
    Customer Relationship Management. Dedicated software for customer service, sales automation, management of external communications, marketing campaign and loyalty programs. Sold as independent software as well as a module of ERP systems.
    CRT
    Cathode Ray Tube. Outdated technology for monitors.
    CTU
    Czech Telecommunication Office. Telecommunications market regulator in the Czech Republic (Český telekomunikační úřad).
  • Data centre
    Location at which colocation, hosting, and cloud-computing services are provisioned. Data centres physically house IT equipment and manage, process, and exchange digital data and information. These facilities include redundant and/or backup power supplies as well as redundant data communications connections.
    Data centre operators
    They represent different business models and develop the portfolios of the offered services in different ways. Depending on the group, the roles of data centres themselves and the significance of various types of solutions differ as well. As a result, it turns out that there is competition between the groups indicated below. The competition, however, is limited to a degree. A simple comparison of companies, even based on the same parameters, is highly disputable and sometimes fully unjustified. Those seven groups are:

    • Colocation operators (e.g., ATM, Beyond.pl, Network Communication, Polcom, Varion, Warsaw Data Center, but also GTS, Linxtelecom, Netia and Orange). These operators specialise in colocation and hosting, which are their primary services although they need not to be the only ones offered. Other services in their offer include disaster recovery, as regards both a back-up office (front office) and a back-up data centre (back office). Companies representing this group are usually the most operator-neutral and in principle allow any telecommunications operator into their facilities.

    • Telecommunications operators (e.g., 3SF, Exatel, GTS, Inea, Linxtelecom, MNI Telecom, NASK, Netia, Polkomtel, Telekomunikacja Polska (Orange), but also ATM or Varion). They have data centres primarily because of their own telecommunications business and the related needs. They need colocation and telecommunications technology room for cabinets and infrastructure supporting network resources, IT systems, telephone exchanges, patch fields, etc. Depending on the operators, those companies additionally have more (3SF, GTS, ATM, Varion, MNI Telecom) or less (TP, Netia) floor space to be leased to other enterprises for commercial purposes. Telecommunications operators are usually more cautious as regards neutrality guarantees for data transmission or internet access services. For obvious reasons, they seek to combine the sold services into bundles, offering comprehensive support in the area of both colocation and transmission lines. Interestingly, key clients of this group of companies are frequently other telecommunications operators, smaller ISPs, and data transmission service providers such as 3SF (T-Systems), ATM (PTC), Netia (P4) and Varion (Exatel).

    • IT integrators and service providers (e.g., Asseco Business Solutions, CK ZETO, Comarch, HP, IBM, Talex, Tieto, Wasko (COIG)). An own data centre is primarily a tool for selling IT products and services. Most often, IT integrators do not sell just colocation as such, nor do they compete on this market with operators specialised in server hoteling. If they provide colocation services to a client, this is part of a bigger contract, an element of a broader offer, or an additional service. Some of the operators explicitly admit that they are not interested in colocation at all and that they have data centres for the purposes of more advanced services or in order to be independent from external providers. The data centres owned by companies from this group are also used as back-up, supplementary data centres, thus making it possible to expand the IT outsourcing offer.

    • Companies from outside the telecommunications and IT sectors (e.g., Onet). In principle it is difficult to name any other company from this group that is not only a local player. Onet has a relatively large – for Polish conditions – high-standard facility, in half used for its own purposes and in half for the purposes supplying services to other enterprises (only large organisations). As a result, as with providers from the ICT sector, Onet’s data centre is a hybrid facility. The portfolio of services offered corresponds to this description and is dominated by colocation.

    • Technology parks. This group encompasses facilities located in technology and science parks, special economic zones, and business development centres. These are frequently owned by companies responsible for managing the entire complex (this does not include large telecommunications and IT companies placing their facilities within parks and special economic zones). Our in-depth analysis of the existing facilities demonstrates that, thus far, few such investments have been made, and they have not been undertaken on an appropriate scale (except for single cases, e.g., PCPD). On the other hand, the commenced projects, frequently on a much larger scale than previously done, suggest that in the short term facilities from this group will prove increasingly competitive to other companies, especially of the first and second group. A great asset for this group of providers is the co-financing from EU funds of investment in server rooms.

    • Smaller local providers and server rooms. These are most often companies that operate locally, that operate in bigger cities, and that address their offer to the SME sector. Operators from this group usually have no separate building, so they place server rooms in a common location such as in an office building. Providers from this group are able to offer competitive prices on the condition that the client does demand high levels of quality, security systems, or redundancy.

    • Private data centres and server rooms. A completely separate group of facilities (not analysed in more detail in this report) is that of private, non-commercial facilities that function exclusively to satisfy the needs of one organisation or a group of organisations linked through their capital or ownership structure. The scale of investment of this type is highly differentiated: from single server rooms to large data centres, specially designed and constructed from scratch, in accordance with standards applied to the leading commercial facilities in the country. Most of such investments represent the banking and finance sectors, with financial institutions independently controlling at least one data centre and at the same time using additional and back-up centres provided by other companies. Apart from the ICT or e-commerce companies discussed above, the largest public institutions (e.g., the data centre of the Ministry of Finance in Radom, NBP, and ZUS) and technical universities (AGH) have their own facilities as well.
    Data centre value-added services
    Disaster recovery services feature most prominently in this group. This regards back office (back-up data centre, server rooms) and front office (back-up offices, operations centres). This group also covers IT outsourcing services that are provided using data centre resources.
    Datacom equipment
    Also: Data Communications Equipment (DCE). Devices that provide access or implement communications facilities (move information) and are used in data transmission. They are placed between the data terminal equipment (DTE) and a data transmission circuit (DTC).
    DLD
    Domestic Long-distance Calls.
    DLISP
    Data Transmission, Line Rental And Internet Services Provision. It is one of the three main segments of the telecoms market, right after mobile and fixed-line telephony. The value of the market is calculated as the sum of operators’ revenues from data transmission, line rental and internet services. The value of internet service market consists of revenues from fixed broadband access, excluding revenues from mobile internet services. The number of lines is equal to broadband connections independently of type of connection (xDSL, cable, CDMA, Fast Ethernet, FWA, radio access, Wi-Fi, WiMAX, leased line) excluding mobile internet. The data transmission market consists of operators’ revenues from IP VPN and colocation and hosting services.
    DOCSIS
    Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification. The standard in telecommunications that permits the addition of high-speed data transfer to an existing cable TV network. Implemented by cable television operators in order to provide internet access over their existing (usually hybrid fibre-coaxial) infrastructure.
    Downstream
    Data sent from a network service provider to an end customer.
    DVB-C
    Digital Video Broadcasting – Cable. Digital cable TV standard that transmits an MPEG-2 or MPEG-4 stream.
    DVB-H
    Digital Video Broadcasting – Handheld. Mobile TV standard. This standard did not attract wider interest from the market.
    DVB-S
    Digital Video Broadcasting – Satellite. The standard for digital TV transmission over satellite.
    DVB-T
    Digital Video Broadcasting – Terrestrial. A European-based standard for the broadcast transmission of digital terrestrial television. This system transmits compressed digital audio, digital video, and other data in an MPEG transport stream.
    DVB-T2
    Digital Video Broadcasting – Second-Generation Terrestrial. Extension of DVB-T; increases the spectrum capacity.
  • E-commerce
    Also: electronic commerce. An electronic trade system of buying and selling products or services over electronic systems such as the internet or other computer networks. Internet sales (online sales) are sales at internet stores as well as the sales at e-commerce platforms, both by individuals and by enterprises.
    E-government
    Automated and electronic interactions between a government and its citizens.
    EDGE
    Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution. Internet access technology in GSM networks, also referred to as 2.5G. EDGE offers higher capacity than GPRS but lower than 3G.
    ERP
    Enterprise Resource Planning. Software used to support the processes of planning and managing enterprise resources; ERP systems comprise a group of compatible applications (modules) that support main business functions.
  • F2M communication
    Communications from fixed to mobile networks (fixed-to-mobile).
    FAS
    Federal Anti-monopoly Service in Russia. Federal-level executive governmental organ that controls the execution of antitrust (and related) areas.
    Fixed-line telephony market
    The market for fixed-line telephony calculated as operators’ revenues from the provision of fixed-line telephony services both within traditional services (PSTN) and with VoIP technology. The market value compromises revenues from subscriptions, traffic, and interconnect as well with VAS services. The number of lines is equal to those in operators’ networks as well as lines in WLR, LLU, and VoIP models (with WLL access).
    FTTB
    Fibre to the building.
    FTTH
    Fibre to the home.
    FVNO
    Fixed Virtual Network Operator. A company that provides a fixed-line telephony service but does not have all the network infrastructure required. Instead, it has an agreement signed with a telecommunications carrier to buy services on a wholesale basis (e.g. BSA, WLR) or to offer its services in the carrier's network via prefix and/or preselection.
  • Georgian National Communications Commission
    Georgian telecommunications market regulator.
    GIODO
    The Inspector General for Personal Data Protection in Poland (Generalny Inspektor Ochrony Danych Osobowych).
    GLONASS
    Radio-based Satellite Navigation System developed by Russia (Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema). The only system able to compete with the GPS system developed in US.
    Government IT Commission
    Russian government commission responsible for the coordination of IT implementation in public authorities at the federal and regional levels.
    GPON
    Gigabit passive optical network. Point-to-multipoint access mechanism. Its main characteristic is the use of passive splitters in the fibre distribution network, thus enabling one single feeding fibre from the provider's central office to serve multiple homes and small businesses.
    GPS
    Global Positioning System. A satellite navigation system developed in the United States that provides location services and weather conditions information. Other than GLONASS, it is the only global satellite localisation system.
  • HAKOM
    Croatian Post and Electronic Communications Authority (Hrvatska agencija za poštu i elektroničke komunikacije). The national regulator within the telecommunication segment in Croatia.
    Hardware market
    Market of desktops, portable computers (notebooks, netbooks, and tablets, excluding smartphones), servers (x86), printing devices, monitors and projectors and all other IT hardware and components sold separately (for instance: keyboards, pointing devices, processors, motherboards, and hard disks). Value of hardware market is calculated as the product of average price (calculated by PMR in each product category) and volume of sale of the producers (in each product category). Market value excludes revenues from the sale of network equipment and devices (routers, switches, etc.).
    HbbTV
    Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV. Hybrid television. A TV standard combining digital TV transmission and multimedia content delivered via internet.
    HDTV
    High Definition Television. Defined by frame size calculated as number of pixels (horizontally and vertically), scanning system, and frame rate (number of video frames per second).
    HSPA
    High Speed Packet Access, a variation of 3G standard. One form of HSPA was HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access) with enhanced downstream speed. The other was HSUPA (High Speed Uplink Packet Access) with enhanced upstream speed.
    Hybrid cloud
    The cloud infrastructure is a composition of private or public cloud model that remain unique entities, but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability. Due to the vast array of possible combinations available in the hybrid cloud (including the use of IT resources in the external data centres in the private cloud model), it is currently the fastest growing service model.
  • IaaS
    Infrastructure as a Service. Providing end users with IT infrastructure. IaaS services exclude colocation or rent of dedicated servers. However, it does include sharing processing capacity, storage space, backup services, disaster recovery data centre services, and business continuity services (excluding physical office), virtual work stations, or virtual private servers (the latter being the most common service in the IaaS model). The end user renting a virtualised server is obliged to pay a monthly charge for storage space and power usage.
    ICT
    Information and communications technologies. It includes the IT and telecommunications markets.
    ICT infrastructure
    Physical hardware used to interconnect computers and users. It includes transmission media such as telephone lines, cable television lines, satellites, and antennas as well as routers, aggregators, repeaters, and other devices that control transmission paths. Infrastructure also includes the software used to send, receive, and manage the signals that are transmitted.
    ICT infrastructure access services
    This is the most basic but also the most common type of services on the Polish market. It consists of making available the infrastructure and physical space for placing servers at a data centre (colocation). It may take different forms: from simply providing rooms to be arranged by the client through separating parts of shared space (a cage) to server hosting (dedicated and virtual) and supplying equipment on a IaaS basis. This segment also covers hardware-based intrusion detection systems and firewalls.
    IIPA
    International Intellectual Property Alliance, private sector coalition, working to improve international protection and enforcement of copyrighted materials and open up foreign markets closed by piracy and other market access barriers.
    ILD
    International long-distance calls.
    Incumbent operator
    In the CEE region, the term refers to previously state-owned telecommunications companies that were fixed-line monopolists existing during a communist regime. In the 1990s, these companies were privatised usually along with the telecommunications infrastructure they possessed.
    Infrastructure management services
    These services accompany the provision of infrastructure. They may include the simplest support or control activities aimed at verifying the condition of the client’s hardware. This group also encompasses remote hands services, administering more advanced PaaS services, and system and database management (without entering the application layer).
    Intelligent networks
    Platform on which telecommunications operators provide various value added services to end customers. Examples of services provisioned on those platforms include virtual private networks, services, Premium Rate calls, and televoting.
    Interconnection charges / revenues
    Payments made to the operator / received by other operators for origination, termination, or transfer of traffic using other operators’ networks.
    Internal roaming
    A service provided by one mobile operator to another which does not have its own network sufficient to deliver its services to the end user.
    IPTV
    Internet Protocol Television. A technology in which the television signal is transmitted via an internet protocol suite.
    IPTV
    Internet Protocol Television. In this standard, TV services are provided with the use of internet protocol instead of cable, satellite or DVB-T signals. The IPTV standard enables time shifted television (catch-up TV) and higher interaction with viewers.
    IPVPN
    Internet Protocol Virtual Private Network. This network enables one company to connect all its branches in a secure way. With IPVPN, connected computers are able to send and receive across shared or public networks in secure manner.
    ISDN
    Integrated Services Digital Network. The standard used in fixed-line telephony services; allows for the simultaneous transfer of voice and data.
    ISP
    Internet Service Provider. ISP provide telecommunications services on its own last mile infrastructure. In some cases, ISP also keeps its own servers for its end clients (server WWW or e-mail server). In addition, internet access ISP also offer VoIP and IPTV services.
    ISP market
    Internet services provision market. Compromise the value of internet access services supplied by ISPs.
    IT consulting
    Includes all services related to advising clients on how to optimally use IT resources; also, comparing / planning / judging / showing strong and weak points of particular IT solutions prior to actual implementation.
    IT integration
    Includes all the services related to linking existing subsystems / software applications into one system; also includes computer network / hardware integration as necessary.
    IT market
    The value of IT market is calculated as the sum of revenues from the sale of hardware (hardware market), software (software market), and services (IT services market). The market value excludes revenues from the sale of networking and telecommunications equipment and devices.
    IT offshoring
    The process of relocating a company's business activities from one country to another in order to reduce costs.
    IT outsourcing
    Subcontracting some activities to a third-party company. The key activities of IT outsourcing are web application and website management, help desk / call centre, IT network management, hardware management, colocation and hosting, and business process outsourcing.
    IT services market
    The IT services market comprises revenues from the sale of software implementation, system integration, support and maintenance, IT consulting, IT training, IT outsourcing, IT infrastructure constructing, and network design and development services. The segment value also takes into account revenues from cloud computing (only IaaS and PaaS; excludes SaaS model).
    IT training
    Includes the provision of IT courses / seminars / workshops / certifications for businesses and individuals.
    IT&T
    Information technology and telecommunications.
    ITU
    International Telecommunication Union. United Nations specialized agency for information and communication technologies.
    IVR
    Interactive Voice Response. Automated systems implemented by companies allowing interaction with its end customers. The interaction is based on input from end customer by telephone keypad or speech. IVR systems respond with pre-recorded or dynamically generated answers. IVR systems are used by telecommunications operators or large companies with a large client base in order to handle large call volumes.
  • KRRiT
    Polish National Broadcasting Council (Krajowa Rada Radiofonii i Telewizji). The main task of the Council is to protect freedom of speech and broadcaster independence, interests of viewers and listeners, and open and pluralistic character of radio and television.
    KUD at PIIT
    The Committee for Value-Added Services (Komitet Usług Dodanych, KUD) was established in 2005 by the Board of the Polish Chamber of Information Technology and Telecommunications (PIIT). The committee includes mobile telephony operators (Orange, T-Mobile, Polkomtel, P4), service providers (Avantis, Mobiltek, El2, MNI, Teleaudio, One-2-one) and distributors (e.g., Bauer Nowe Media).
  • LAN
    Local Area Network. A group of computers and associated devices that share a common communications line or wireless link. Cover small physical areas.
    LBS
    Location Based Services. Various types of services or software using features based on localisation information of its users. For instance, such services are adopted by the games industry or social networking platforms. The growing popularity of smartphones and tablets is an important prerequisite of the development of those services.
    LCD
    Liquid-crystal display. Technology of monitors using liquid crystals.
    LED
    Light-emitting diode. Technology of monitors using light-emitting diodes for illumination.
    Line rental / line leasing
    Service provided by operators that have their own backbone networks to corporations and other operators, usually smaller ISPs, so that they can rent lines to have, for example, access to the Internet.
    LLU
    Local loop unbundling. Regulatory process in which alternative operators gain access to connection between end client and access point of a stationery network. In this way, alternative operator doesn’t have to develop parallel infrastructure. Local loop or sub-loop can be used to provide voice and non-voice services.
    LTE
    Long Term Evolution, labelled also as 4G. Standard of mobile telephony communications with high-speed internet traffic; successor to UMTS and 3G standard.
    LTE-A
    Long Term Evolution-Advanced. Enhancement of the LTE technology currently being developed. Its main requirements are to reach the downstream speed of 1Gb/s and a capacity three times larger than the standard LTE.
  • M2F
    Communications initiated from mobile to fixed networks (mobile-to-fixed).
    M2M communication
    Technologies that enable communication between machines (machine-to-machine) by means of wireless networks and wired networks.
    Management Support Systems
    A subset of a Management Information System (MIS). Extends information retrieval capabilities of end users with query and analysis functions for database searching, generating 'what if' scenarios, and other similar purposes.
    Ministry of Administration and Digitisation of Poland
    Polish ministry mainly concerned with various aspects of digitisation, e-administration, internet, and telecommunications in Poland.
    Ministry of Telecommunications and Information Technologies (Azerbaijan)
    Azerbaijan telecommunications market regulator.
    Ministry of Telecommunications and IT (Belarus)
    Belarus telecommunications market regulator.
    Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications (Armenia)
    Armenian telecommunications market regulator.
    Minsvyaz
    Ministry of Communications and Mass Communications. Russian federal executive body responsible for state policy and management in the areas of IT and communications, and coordination of other federal executive bodies. The ministry is also responsible for the implementation of the e-Russia federal programme.
    MIS
    Management Information System. Software used by enterprises for the organisational management of its functioning. The software includes designing business procedures and reporting on their functioning.
    MNP
    Mobile Number Portability. Procedure which allows mobile telephone users to retain their telephone numbers while changing service providers.
    Mobile banking
    Service provided in the field of electronic banking. It can be said that mobile banking was derived directly from internet banking, which made it possible to manage finances through a computer and a website. At present, mobile banking, making it possible to manage finances from a mobile phone, is seen as a highly innovative VAS.
    Mobile internet
    Data transmission service realised via mobile telephony networks by means of USB and PC or telephone (most often smartphone).
    Mobile marketing
    Marketing actions realised via mobile devices. Due to the growing penetration of smartphones and increased popularity of social websites and LBS services, mobile marketing campaigns are able to highly adapt an offer to the preferences of potential customers.
    Mobile payment
    Payment services operated under financial regulation and performed from or via a mobile device. Instead of paying with cash, check or credit cards, a consumer can use a mobile phone to pay for a wide range of services and digital or physical goods.
    Mobile telephony market
    The market value is defined as total revenues of mobile operators, including revenues from voice, data, VAS and interconnect. SIM cards are measured as the total number presented by all operators active on the market. Number of mobile broadband connections only includes subscribers to mobile internet services in PC+USB modem usage model, excluding smartphone users and smartphone data tariff plans. Penetration levels are measured in relation to total population in the country.
    MTR
    Mobile Termination Rate. In other words, the operator from whose network a voice call is initiated is charged a wholesale fee at a mobile termination rate by the operator to whose network the user connects.
    MVNE
    Mobile Virtual Network Enabler. A company that provides infrastructure and services to enable an MVNO to offer its services. It does not have any relationship with the end users.
    MVNO
    Mobile Virtual Network Operator. MVNO is an operator that has made an arrangement with an existing operator to buy mobile services at wholesale prices, to later resell them on the market under its own brand name.
  • NAS
    Network Attached Storage. Dedicated server with its own network address connected to the network. NAS provides file-based data storage services to other devices on the network.
    National Agency for Regulation in Electronic Communications and Information Technologies
    Moldovan telecommunications market regulator.
    National Media and Infocommunications Authority
    Telecommunications market regulator in Hungary (Nemzeti Média- és Hírközlési Hatóság – NMHH). The body oversees and regulates the telecommunications, postal services and the media sector (electronic and print media).
    National Telecommunications Agency
    Kyrgyz telecommunications market regulator.
    Network equipment
    Refers to many types of devices used in the process of ICT network construction, support and operation, e.g., switches, routers, cabling, transceivers, servers, firewalls, storage equipment, UPS, wireless, memory, KVM, etc.
    NFC
    Form of contactless payment system (based on radio communication) between smartphone and payment terminals. Functions enabled include money transactions, data exchange, and the simplified setup of more complex communications, such as Wi-Fi.
    NIST
    National Institute of Standards and Technology. United States measurements standards laboratory; part of U.S. Department of Commerce. NIST is one of the authors of the cloud computing definition.
  • OEM
    Original Equipment Manufacturer. An equipment manufacturer that produces equipment later purchased by another company and resold under its brand name in more complex products.
  • PaaS
    Platform as a Service. End users are provided with an environment for application development. The end client does not invest in the operating system or in the programming environment. It develops and maintains applications. An example of such a platform is Windows Azure (a company platform of the Microsoft cloud). Mainly programmers use this service model.
    Pay TV market
    Total revenues from subscription-based services; available in different segments such as the digital satellite, cable TV (analogue cable, digital TV) and IPTV markets.
    PBX
    Private Branch Exchange. A telephone exchange that serves a particular business or office as opposed to one that a common carrier or telephone company operates for many businesses or for the general public.
    PDA devices
    Personal Digital Assistant devices (also palmtop computers). A sort of handheld computer device. PDAs commonly have colour screens and audio capabilities, enabling them to be used as mobile phones (smartphones), web browsers, or portable media players. PDAs have touch screens for entering data and a memory card slot for data storage. Many PDAs can access the internet, intranets or extranets. The software typically required by a PDA includes an appointment calendar, a to-do list, an address book for contacts, and some sort of note program.
    Penetration (density)
    The number of lines / users per 100 people in a given country. For example, the mobile telephony penetration is the number of mobile phone users per 100 inhabitants. In other words, penetration (density) is a population's proportion that experiences something. For example, broadband penetration among households is the percentage of households that have broadband internet.
    PIKE
    Polish Chamber for Electronic Communication (Polska Izba Komunikacji Elektronicznej). The Chamber represents broadband electronic communications operators and the manufacturers and distributors of the equipment and service used by these operators. The task of PIKE is to ensure proper legal conditions for the development of the sector and market.
    PIRC
    The Polish Chamber of Digital Radiodiffusion (Polska Izba Radiodyfuzji Cyfrowej) continues the activity of the Association of the Satellite Sector Companies (Stowarzyszenie Firm Branży Satelitarnej – SFBS), an organisation established in 2002. Its members include manufacturers of satellite and terrestrial television receiving equipment as well as companies that provide services to the leading television broadcasters and to individual customers on the Polish market. For several years, the organisation has been assisting in crafting legislation that affects the ICT industry in Poland. It also takes part in conferences concerning the issues of radio and television, especially the transition from analogue to digital terrestrial broadcasting.
    PMR's Telecommunications Climate Indicator
    The index calculated by PMR on the basis of the answers provided by large and mid-sized telecoms that gives a picture of the situation on the telecommunications market. It is an average of assessments provided by respondents during interviews of the company's situation in the past and current year. Its value ranges from "-2" to "+2".
    PND
    Personal or Portable Navigation Device. Also known as personal navigation assistant.
    Premium Rate services
    services provided by telecommunications operators charged with additional payment. Some examples are SMS payments or participation in lotteries, contests, polls, votes or plebiscites, charities, as well as erotic and esoteric chat rooms and other similar services.
    Printing equipment market
    The total value of printing devices, such as printers (laser, inkjet, and dot-matrix) and multifunctional printing devices (laser, inkjet) sold by manufacturers.
    Private cloud (cloud computing)
    The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by a single organization comprising multiple consumers (e.g., business units) whether in-house or with the help of external service provided. It may be owned, managed, and operated by the organization, a third party, or some combination thereof; it may exist on-site or off-site. The value of the private cloud computing market only considers revenues of independent sources (commercial data centres) from private cloud services. The market value excludes revenues of independent business units within an organisation or financial group (from the provisioning of those services to the rest of the group).
    PSTN
    Public switched telephone network.
    Public cloud (cloud computing)
    The physical infrastructure belongs to an entity selling services in the cloud computing model. It may be owned, managed, and operated by a business, academic, or government organization, or some combination thereof. The cost of using the public cloud is lower than the private cloud model, however. This is due to the scale of the offer addressed to the mass market, as it is less flexible. In the public cloud, unlike private cloud, the client has to adapt to the service of the provider.
    PUE
    Power Usage Effectiveness. Indicator used to determine the energy efficiency of a data centre. PUE is determined by dividing the amount of power entering a data centre by the power used to run the computer infrastructure within it. PUE is therefore expressed as a ratio, with overall efficiency improving as the quotient decreases toward 1.
    PVR
    Personal Video Recorder. Device installed at the premises of the end client of pay TV services with recording capability.
  • QR codes
    Quick response codes are a type of bar codes through which a combination of black-and-white fields make it possible to record and read any information, both static and dynamic. The difference between a usual bar code used primarily for marking goods and a QR code results from its design. QR codes are two-dimensional, which means that the information is recorded not only horizontally, as in the case of a standard bar code, but also vertically. In this way, several hundredfold more information can be stored compared to a traditional bar code.
  • RATEL
    The Republic Agency for Electronic Communications. The main regulatory body for electronic communication in Serbia (Republička agencija za elektronske komunikacije).
    Rosinformtechnologii
    Federal IT Agency of Russian Federation. Entity under the wing of the Ministry of Communications and Mass Media. Federal enforcement authority that manages state property and the provision of state IT services, including the use of information technologies for the formation of state information resources and the provision of access to them. Among others, the agency manages the e-Russia budget and the federal programme for the creation of technology parks.
  • SaaS
    Software as a Service. A cloud in which the producer stores and shares an application with end users via the internet. In this model, the end client gives full control of software to the provider, and as a result does not obtain property rights to the software used. The software is only rented from the provider and regularly paid for at recurring intervals.
    SAC
    Cost per unit related to the acquisition of new customers. It can relate to various telecommunications services (mobile telephony or broadband internet, for example). Includes a one-time payment to the incumbent operator (in the case of wholesale-based services), sales commissions, postal services and the cost of modems sold to end customer.
    SCM solutions
    Supply Chain Management solutions. A group of software applications designed to improve the whole production process, ranging from finding components for making a product / service, to delivering it to customers.
    SEO
    Search Engine Optimisation. Focused on improving webpage rankings found in the results of internet search engine searches.
    SLA
    Service Level Agreement. Contract between the service provider and end client defining the parameters of the provisioned service, support options and penalties in case of a breakdown.
    Small hosting
    The maintenance of internet services and e-mail accounts on servers owned by providers. This market is directly linked with the internet domain market, as it is common practice for companies to buy services from one provider.
    Smart TV
    Trend visible on pay TV market involving the use of internet connection to television sets and set-top boxes. With this trend the devices have a higher focus on online interactive media, Internet TV, over-the-top content, and less focus on traditional broadcast media.
    Software implementation services
    All the processes involved in getting software or hardware operating properly in its environment, including installation, configuration, running, testing, and making necessary changes; excludes hardware and system software purchases.
    Software management services
    The key components of this segment include application management as well as providing access to own and third-party software on a SaaS (software as a service) basis. Additionally, it includes back-up processes and security-improving software solutions.
    Software market
    The market value is calculated as revenues from the sale of software independently from the type of end customer (business or individual). The market value includes revenues from the sale of software in cloud computing model (SaaS). The value excludes revenues from the sale of services and hardware that accompany the sale of software to business segment. Main categories of software market are operational systems and office software, ERP, CRM, BI, database software, and games and educational software.
    SOHO
    Small or home office environment. This includes privately owned and operated businesses as well as individuals who are self-employed.
    Support and maintenance services
    All the processes involved in managing and providing assistance with IT hardware, software and ICT infrastructure, solving and preventing specific problems with IT products, services, and network and IT security; excludes purchases of hardware and system software).
    System integration
    All the processes integrating applications with new or existing hardware, packaged and custom software, and communications infrastructure; excludes purchases of hardware and system software.
  • Telecommunications devices market
    The total value of the merchandise sold on the market such as telephones, cordless phones, cellular (mobile) phones, pagers, fax machines, etc. Excludes all passive equipment.
    Telecommunications equipment market
    The total value of merchandise such as end user equipment, mobile handsets, fixed-line handsets, faxes, audio and video conferencing systems as well as network equipment sold.
    Telecommunications market
    The value of the telecommunications market is the sum of operators’ revenues from the provision of mobile and fixed-line telephony and data transmission and ISP services.
    Terrestrial television digitisation
    The process of replacing (television and radio) analogue broadcasting with digital broadcasting. Digital technology improves sound and image quality and makes it possible to use additional services such as video on demand (VOD) or interactive television (ITV).
    TIA
    Telecommunications Industry Association. Trade association representing the global information and communications technology industry through standards development, policy initiatives, business opportunities, market intelligence, and networking events. TIA is accredited by the American National Standards Institute.
    Tier classification (standards) of data centres
    One of the most popular methods for measuring the parameters of a data centre is the Tier classification proposed by the Uptime Institute and TIA. There are four Tiers that define the criteria a data centre must satisfy in order to be categorised as belonging to a given group. Theoretically, Tier 1 and Tier 2 are primarily dedicated to services for less demanding clients and the SME/SOHO sector. Tier 3 requirements are supposed to meet the expectations of large enterprises, while Tier 4 covers standards that may be required by the largest institutions and sector leaders. Continuity and prevention of interruptions in the operation of resources located at a data centre are business critical for such facilities and require very strict compliance. Such conditions are indicated in the service level agreement concluded between the client and the data processing service provider, including the highest level of redundancy, and an emergency power supply with the longest possible time of operation in cases where the power supply from the main source is cut off.
    TU SR
    Telecommunications Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic. (Telekomunikačný úrad SR) National regulatory authority and pricing authority in the electronic communications sector in Slovakia.
  • UCaaS
    Unified Communications as a Service. Delivering Unified Communication as a Service. In this model, all software and telecommunications solutions (PBX) necessary for the proper functioning of the service are delivered in a service model.
    UHDTV
    Ultra High Definition TV. Also named as 4K. Technology standard for TV with a definition of 3840x2160.
    UKE
    Office of Electronic Communications, Polish telecommunications market regulator (Urząd Komunikacji Elektronicznej). The regulator of the telecoms market in Poland. UKE supervises companies operating on the Polish telecoms market. It also issues permits and licences and ensures that fair competition principles are observed.
    Unified Communications
    Solutions comprising telecommunications services and business software aimed to provide instant communication on various levels (chat, telephony, video conferencing, e-mail, data sharing, etc.).
    UOKiK
    Anti-monopoly watchdog in Poland (Urząd Ochrony Konkurencji i Konsumentow).
    UPS
    Uninterruptible Power Supply. Power backup in the case of an electrical system break down. These systems differ in scale. From small ones providing power for a short period (several minutes) to the larger ones (with power for several hours). In data centres, UPS systems are used for just a few minutes until fuel generators assume the load.
    Upstream
    Data sent from customer to a network service provider.
    USSD
    Unstructured Supplementary Service Data. A mechanism and a service enabling direct communication between a phone and elements of a mobile network.
    Uzbek Agency for Telecommunications and IT
    Uzbek telecommunications market regulator.
  • VAS
    Value Added Services. Non-core services, referred to as service options, which are complimentary or ancillary to a core service offering. They are especially popular in the telecoms industry by offering a service that adds value to the standard service (phone calls) and are supplied by either the operator or a value-added service provider (VASP). Examples of a VAS are: mobile internet, entertainment and information services (mobile locations services, mobile communities, mobile TV), mobile finances (micropayments, m-banking), mobile marketing, video calls, etc.
    Virtualisation
    Technology enabling the separation of hardware resources from the systems and/or applications using those hardware resources. Virtualisation is not synonymous with cloud computing.
    VOD
    Video on Demand. A system enabling the TV user to watch selected entertainment by being connected on demand.
    VoIP
    Voice Over Internet Protocol. Telephone services over the internet (rather than via switched telephone networks). The cost of VoIP calls is usually lower than that of standard (especially of international long distance) calls.
    VoIP operators
    Voice over Internet Protocol operators. Providers of a set of facilities and services that are used to manage the delivery of voice information over the internet. There are several forms of access to VoIP telephone services: scratch cards / access numbers, instant messengers, VoIP gateway / telephone, and corporate VoIP telephone systems (hosted VoIP systems, managed VoIP services, IP PBX).
    VPS
    Virtual Private Server. A virtual machine that shares physical server hardware with another VPS, though using an allocated, dedicated slice of the system resources. A single computer can have several VPSs, each one with its own operating system that runs the hosting software for a particular user. VPS is one of the most popular and basic type of services offered by data centre operators and intermediaries who don’t have their own facilities but instead lease floor space or servers from a data centre operator or function under a reseller agreement.
  • WAN
    Wide Area Network. Network consisting of computers spread over a large geographical area. In order to connect to a WAN, a public telecommunications network is required.
    Wi-Fi
    Access to the Internet over radio lines. Wi-Fi is available at hotspots (at base stations, i.e., radio receiver and transmitter), where one can have wireless access to the internet (radio waves are used instead of cable). The coverage of a typical hotspot is several hundred metres (in diameter).
    WiMAX
    Access to the internet over radio lines. WiMAX is gaining popularity among telecom operators (also in Poland), which seek to avoid the cost of developing traditional cable infrastructure. WiMAX offers far greater coverage than Wi-Fi (from several to several dozen kilometres). One of the key operators developing WiMAX networks in Poland is Netia.
    WLAN
    Wireless Local Area Network. A network that links two or more computers (devices) to enable communication between devices in a limited area.
    WLR
    Wholesale Line Rental. WLR is wholesale access to a local loop; used to sell fixed-line services. In other words, WLR offers the possibility to buy packages of phone services from TP SA at a wholesale price, to resell them to TP SA customers. WLR was launched in Poland in 2007. Several alternative operators offer it now.
  • ZAiKS
    Polish Society of Authors and Composers (Związek Autorów i Kompozytorów Scenicznych). Organisation representing artists and composers with the mission of defending their copyrights.